Jest Transformer for Vue Components


This article is available as a screencast!

In this article, we build a transformer to change Vue 3 .vue component into a format Jest can understand. This is what vue-jest does, and how Vue Test Utils works. We will do this using a TDD like process: write what we want, and follow the errors to success.

Getting Started

So, without further ado, we install jest and write a test:

const Foo = require('./Foo.vue')

test('Loads a vue file', () => {
  console.log(document.body.outerHTML) // <div>Hello world</div>, eventually
})

Running yarn jest at this point This fails - we don’t have a Foo.vue. Make one:

<template>
  <div>
    Hello {{ world }}
  </div>
</template>

<script>
import { ref } from 'vue'

export default {
  setup() {
    return {
      world: ref('world')
    }
  }
}
</script>

Running this again with yarn jest gives us a new error:

Jest encountered an unexpected token

    ({"Object.<anonymous>":function(module,exports,require,__dirname,__filename,global,jest){<template>
                                                                                             ^

What do we do?!

Using @vue/compiler-sfc

Jest does not know what to do with <template>. For this, we will pull in @vue/compiler-sfc! Install that, and the latest vue, with: yarn add vue@3.0.0-alpha.8 @vue/compiler-sfc@3.0.0-alpha.8.

The SFC compiler comes with a parse function. Jest transforms can be written in any file, as long as they export a process function. Make index.js that exports a process function:

const { parse } = require('@vue/compiler-sfc')

module.exports.process = (source, filename) => {
  console.log(source)
}

And use the transform by creating a jest.config.js

module.exports = { 
  transform: {
    '.vue$': './index.js'
  }
}

This was, all .vue files will be interpretted as the return value from process. Let’s try parse in the process function:

module.exports.process = (source, filename) => {
  const parsed = parse(source)
  console.log(parsed)
}
{
  descriptor: {
    filename: 'component.vue',
    template: {
      type: 'template',
      content: '\n  <div>\n    Hello {{ world }}\n  </div>\n',
      loc: [Object],
      attrs: {},
      map: [Object]
    },
    script: {
      type: 'script',
      content: '\n' +
        "import { ref } from 'vue'\n" +
        '\n' +
        'export default {\n' +
        '  setup() {\n' +
        '    return {\n' +
        "      world: ref('world')\n" +
        '    }\n' +
        '  }\n' +
        '}\n',
      loc: [Object],
      attrs: {},
      map: [Object]
    },
    styles: [],
    customBlocks: []
  },
  errors: []
}

There is tons of good stuff here. We are interested in the template and script fields for now. Let’s parse the template with compileTemplate, also from @vue/compiler-sfc:

const { parse, compileTemplate } = require('@vue/compiler-sfc')

module.exports.process = (source, filename) => {
  const parsed = parse(source)
  const template = compileTemplate({ source: parsed.descriptor.template.content }).code
  console.log(template)

  return template
}

We get a render function!

'import { toDisplayString as _toDisplayString, createVNode as _createVNode, openBlock as _openBlock, createBlock as _createBlock } from "vue"\n' +
    '\n' +
    'export function render(_ctx, _cache) {\n' +
    '  return (_openBlock(), _createBlock("div", null, "Hello " + _toDisplayString(_ctx.world), 1 /* TEXT */))\n' +
    '}',

If we return it from process we get "SyntaxError: Cannot use import statement outside a module". This is because it is using ES modules (export and import). We need some way for Jest to understand ES modules. We could use a preset, like babel-jest, or we can just compile the code ourselves using babel - I will be doing the latter. Install babel with yarn add @babel/core and use it:

Transpiling with babel and babel preset

// ...
const { transform } = require('@babel/core')

module.exports.process = (source, filename) => {
  // ...
  const template = compileTemplate({ source: parsed.descriptor.template.content }).code
  return transform(template)
}

Still no luck! We need to tell babel what to target with a preset - by default babel doesn’t do a whole lot. We can use preset-env, which targets node module syntax by default. Install it with yarn add @babel/preset-env:

const { parse, compileTemplate } = require('@vue/compiler-sfc')
const { transform } = require('@babel/core')
const babelPreset = require('@babel/preset-env')

module.exports.process = (source, filename) => {
  const parsed = parse(source)
  const template = compileTemplate({ source: parsed.descriptor.template.content }).code

  return transform(template, { presets: [babelPreset] })
}

Finally our test are green! No errors. - Mount the Foo.vue component:

const { createApp } = require('vue')

const Foo = require('./Foo.vue')

test('Loads a vue file', () => {
  const el = document.createElement('div')
  el.id = 'app'
  document.body.appendChild(el)
  createApp(Foo).mount(el)
  console.log(document.body.outerHTML) // <div>Hello world</div>
})

Now we have <div>Hello </div>! Not bad - but where is world? There is also an error showing:

[Vue warn]: Property "world" was accessed during render but is not defined on instance.
      at <Anonymous> (Root)

  console.log index.spec.js:9
    <body><div id="app"><div>Hello </div></div></body>

Combining template’s render function and the script content

This above warning is happening because we are only returning the compiler <template> - what about the <script>? That’s why world is not defined, and we get the warning. Let’s compile the <script> tag in the same way:

const { parse, compileTemplate } = require('@vue/compiler-sfc')
const { transform } = require('@babel/core')
const babelPreset = require('@babel/preset-env')

module.exports.process = (source, filename) => {
  const parsed = parse(source)
  const template = compileTemplate({ source: parsed.descriptor.template.content }).code

  const compiledTemplate = transform(template, { presets: [babelPreset] }).code
  const compiledScript = transform(parsed.descriptor.script.content, { presets: [babelPreset] }).code

  return // ????
}

We have now got two module.exports - compiledTemplate has one, module.exports.default, with all the content from the <script> tag. compileTemplate has module.exports.render. We need to combine them into a single module.exports… it’s not pretty exactly, but we do so like this:

  const compiledTemplate = transform(template, { presets: [babelPreset] }).code
  const compiledScript = transform(parsed.descriptor.script.content, { presets: [babelPreset] }).code

  return compileTemplate + compiledScript + '; module.exports = {...module.exports.default, render};'

Now we are rendering <div>Hello world</div> without any problems!

Conclusion

We saw:

  • using @vue/compiler-sfc, parse, and compileTemplate
  • process to create a jest transformer
  • how to use babel and babel preset to target node module syntax

Register your email to get an email every time a new screencast is released!
Thanks for registering!